Nematode Assay - How to do the nematode assay (Mar/13/2007 )
I am interested to check my compounds against nematodes. Can someone tell me , how to do this assay. How we can stain the nematodes to get some pictures. OR anything about nematodes???
thanks and best wishes
hahhahaha sorry for the late reply because i am new here. I think I have done a research on Nematodes including they phylum which is Nematoda and I get to do an essay on it too. So are you still interesting. Ok here it is any way, but i am not sure if it good or not.
Animal can be classified into two groups, vertebrates with a backbone and invertebrates without a backbone. There are a lot of animals which is different from each other, but they are multicellular organisms (organisms that have more than just one cell and have different cells).The science of classifying organisms is called taxonomy. Scientist classifies organisms depending on kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species. The existence of the backbone is part of the animal's structure. Biologists use structural characteristics to classify organisms such as the number of legs, the presence or absence of lungs or gills, feathers, a scaly skin. Functions are used to classify organisms. An example of this is body temperature. Mammals and birds have permanent temperature while other animals have a body temperature which can change depending on the outside temperature.
Nematoda have some special features such as: long and narrow body, nervous system with pharyngeal (throat) nerve ring and have no blood in their body. They can feed on everything and live just about everywhere and many of its species are cylindrical and not segmented. Nematoda have more than two cell layers, tissues and organs. Their body cavity is a pseudocoele. They don't have bones, thus they are invertebrates. Their body fluid is under high pressure. Its body possesses a through gut with a subterminal anus.
Nematodes have special adaptation to survive in their environment. They cause diseases to human and other animal as to plants.
Most common organisms of Nematoda is known as roundworms that includes Rotifers, Pin worm and Hook worm.
Adenophorea and Secernentea
Class of Nematoda can be divided into two groups called "Adenopherea" and "Secernentea." Adenophorea belongs to the free-living marine, freshwater and terrestrial nematodes that are mostly considered as the normally primitive form of nematodes.
Secernentea belongs to the terrestrial nematodes which is parasitic plants and invertebrate and vertebrate organism. Part of their body is bilaterally symmetrical and non-segmented.
The parasitic forms of Nematodes are often transmitted to different hosts or change locations in the host's body. The method of transmission includes when a person eats uncooked meat with larvae in it, by unsafe cuts through skin, or the infective eggs can be transferred by blood sucking insects such as mosquito.
The eggs of parasitic worms can get into the host's body through the stomach and the small intestine. This happens when the host ingests infective eggs of the parasitic worm and it later hatches and becomes the larvae. It could then invade the intestinal mucosa and are carried to the lungs through the systemic circulation. Larvae then mature in the lungs. Following some maturation, the larvae penetrates the lung walls and make their way up the bronchia tree to the throat where they are swallowed and taken down to the small intestine. When they reach the small intestine, they mature further and become the adult worms.
Nematodes' habitat and lifestyle have been affected and there has been a problem in the long term survival due to human activity. An example of this is killing these worms by pest control or medicines. The digestive enzymes in the human intestine can affect the body of these parasitic worms. Extreme drying, heat or cold may cause many nematodes to suspend their life process. When such unfavourable situations occur, they lie dormant until favourable conditions return. Free-living form Nematoda can be destroyed by the change of habitat and their survival could be related to the vegetation, change in soil nutrition or condition. Another thing that could affect the survival of Nematodes is the survival of the host. For example, when the host dies the nematodes dies too.
Parasitic forms can causes disease in human and other animal as well as in plants. Nearly every living organism has been found to be parasitised by one species or another. Infect hosts by parasitic worm may not experience any symptoms for extended period and may take a long time to become aware of them. This could cause damage to soft internal organs including the lungs, the heart and the digestive organs. It can also cause inflammation of the lining of the abdominal cavity, inflammation and enlargement of the liver or spleen, pneumonia (as they live in the lungs before going to throat). Also, the Nematodes can absorb nutrients of food eaten by the host and can lead to the obstruction of pancreatic duct.
Human can get infected from roundworms by touching it with they fingers or skin. By touching the soil which the roundworms have laid eggs on so the soil is contaminated, by eating food like cabbage, carrots or anything that grows on land. Touching it with your fingers or skin can get infected which the roundworm has laid eggs on. The main way of getting infected is by eating the soil accidentally for example like eating after working at the field and forgetting to wash the hand. The soil itself is contaminated with roundworm eggs that are from human poos and eating vegetables and drinking water that has roundworm eggs. Human can also get infected from dogs or pets.
Diagram of Nematoda
"Nematode", Date Accessed: 19/03/07
"Ascariasis", Date Accessed: 21/03/07
"Bt Toxins Found To Kill Parasitic Roundworms", Date Accessed: 15/03/07
"Introduction to the Nematoda: the roundworms", Date Accessed: 15/03/07
"Nematode Diagram", Date Accessed: 15/03/07
what do mean by staining...make it fluorescent