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autoclaving guide - (Jun/17/2014 )



Has anyone a good guide on autoclaving?


Some people state its 15 minutes at 120°C , some state its 20 minutes at 120°C, other state its 15 minutes at 121°C....


I can google it myself and I am able to find those date, but I cant seem to find any good "evidence" or a nice guide/book on this subject.


Anyone a good link?




I followed Hirayama autoclave manual. Online manual can be downloaded from this link (


For a more detailed explanation you can start with ( that showed liquid volume versus autoclaving time needed to achieve 1 to 10^6 Serility Assurance Level (SAL; see wikipedia


I've also found a paper regarding "top 10 considerations when validating autoclave" (


I would just stick to the Hirayama or whichever brand of autoclave you are using because most of the time, we prepare our solutions in "sterile" distilled/deionized water. No need to really go for high SAL.


P.S. 121°C at 15 min is the minimum (and also suitable for media that can't withstand longer sterilization).