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Bacteria transformation - (Jan/17/2010 )

Dear all,

Can ALL bacteria cells be transformed? Historically, E coli has been used but can ALL other bacteria be introduced a new gene too? If yes, can every established methods of calcium chloride, TSS, and electroporation be used? Or is it dependent on other factors?

I'm not sure if I'm making sense at all.. Must be the late nights...

Thanks people!



Transformation protocols have to be established/adapted for every bacteria. For example gram positive bacteria are much harder to transform than gram negativ ones. Another heavy problem could be for example a S-layer that will prevent successful transformation.

In principle there are ways to introduce foreign genes in every organism ...but most of the time its a long way to establish a novel transformation protocol in a new organism.