Cell signaling can trigger transcription factors.
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There have been 17 items by Fredreload (Search limited from 21-July 18)
So the choice is between transfecting transcription factors or messenger RNA. Transcription factors allows a gene (of multiple nucleotides) to be transcribed to messenger RNA. While creating a messenger RNA could have more freedom (you build the nucleotides yourself). I am not knowledgeable enough to know which is a better choice. A comparison between transfection success rate and desired result is needed
New plan, a hack using messenger RNA capable of transforming the cell back to its previous state. Why modify transcription factors and genes when the end result is a messenger RNA? Just target the cell's ribosome and send the artificial messenger RNA over. One problem, delivery. Deliver the correct messenger RNA into every single cell is not a currently known technology. Transfection with virus is possible but even then it is not guaranteed 100% for the cell to transform.
First, check the messenger RNA that IPSC produce. Next, spreads that messenger RNA to all the cells in the entire body to reproduce the SALK experiment. Then we tune the messenger RNA from there
Alright, the bioelectricity method is still in debate since the bioelectricity might not drive the cell back to its stem cell state like IPSC. We can however, take a snapshot of the gene expression of the current cell and attempts to revert the cell back into its previous state as we grow older.
Thanks for the explanation. Injecting miRNA into the body to reverse cells into a younger state seems possible with the partial reprogramming method without going back to stem cell. But if you want to reverse age back to a younger body type like 5 years old this is where it seems impossible. If you compare this with immortal jellyfish it seems the outer shell slowly deteriorates. It's not like you puncture a balloon and it becomes smaller, it is like you are blowing a balloon inside a balloon. I don't think there is an elegant solution for this. Someone enlighten me how biological immortality would work. Why going back to 5 when you can stay 30, well you would lose teeth and the only way to regrow them is by going to a younger age. If staying 30 is your solution the SALK method seems possible, human trial in 10 years.
So now you can see microRNA at work. But it would not be of much help unless you know where it came from or in which tissue this microRNA is produced. If you can capture in molecular detail of the full body in 3D then we can trace and track each of the microRNA and cell like a movie. Of course this requires visualization technique to rule out the structures possibly with a database, identify and correlate based on similar findings of the molecules and essentially the entire body.
We figure it will be easier to test microRNA with a computer simulation then on live animals. We can test a variable microRNA without having to inject it into a live specimen each time.
P.S Work with dream groups, they are more experienced in scanning
"I've looked everywhere there really is not an article about microRNA changing gene expression, it's more of a myth how silencing mRNA with microRNA would results lead to a change in gene expression" There is an extensive literature on this topic. Have you tried PubMed at NCBI? ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
Well, I know how hormone regulates gene expression by phosphorylating transcription factors and have these transcription factors enter the nucleus to change the gene expression. But how does microRNA changes gene expression if all it does is silencing mRNA? And how does silencing microRNA activates transcription factors? I might have missed something here, but do enlighten me if you know the answer
Imagine being able to observe microRNA and DNA action in vitro, that, with the help of computer visualization, could help decode every mechanics in the body and eventually a way to reverse aging. From 20 second to 40 second of the video about attosecond laser presented.
So how exactly do we reverse aging?
First we need to understand the mechanics, we get a snapshot of the complete DNA genome(gene expression) of every cell in the body in the 30 years old and attempt to reverse every cell's DNA gene expression in the body to match it as we grow older, like when I become 50 years old. We do not need to modify the DNA, just the gene expression. This SALK article shows that it is possible to change the epigenetic marks(gene expression) by expressing the four factors in the cell for two days and have the cell's age slowly reverse back to a younger age, that is before it becomes a stem cell completely. The transgenic mice is modified to respond to an antibiotic that would turn on the four genes, but we cannot do that to our bodies, so we need the help from microRNA to change the gene expression. Now this article shows that it is possible to create induced pluripotent stem cell from microRNA, but as far as I've looked everywhere there really is not an article about microRNA changing gene expression, it's more of a myth how silencing mRNA with microRNA would results lead to a change in gene expression. Hormone changes gene expression, but for microRNA, it's a myth. Now this article suggests a transfection method to get microRNA into the cell using a virus, but I prefer the natural way in which microRNA normally enters a cell, this is yet another problem scientists do not understand, maybe with the help of attosecond laser we can understand the mechanics better.
So the goal is to inject an artificial microRNA that would revert all 50 years old cells' gene expression to match the 30 years old cells' gene expression, but how are we going to test it? My idea is through computer programming, microRNA are codes and it binds to mRNA to silence it and eventually leads to a change in gene expression, such calculations can be predicted with computer computations. I'll leave the rest to your thoughts an feedback. Thanks for taking the time to read this
So here is my speculation of what happens when a salamander attempts to regenerate the lost limb.
First, the missing limb wound place sends a signal requesting macrophages for stem cell generation and subsequent microRNA to rebuild the limb. Alright, macrophages are presented in the salamander's blood stream, and the missing limb might or might not send a signal requesting for the macrophages, but it definitely needs to send a signal requesting for microRNA, that might or might not be presented in the blood stream at that time. Why is it not in the blood stream? Because the microRNA normally required for limb regeneration is not needed in the blood stream.
How does this signal request for microRNA? Well, microRNA is made by RNA Polymerase II, and you need to regulate RNA Polymerase II to produce the microRNA you need for limb regeneration at certain cells. This is a bit broad, you might ask what cell types need to code for the microRNA for wound regeneration, it might be in the head or in the bone, I dunno. Knowing where microRNA is produced could be easier in monitoring microRNA as a whole. So far we only measure its concentration and location. The wound repair mechanism, however, is quite precise, there should be more mechanisms at work here.
Now to reproduce this model in humans, we could forget the signal producing microRNA pathway and inject artificial microRNA of our own and the macrophages requires for stem cell generation at the wound place. Since the human microRNA normally would not code for limb regeneration anyway, I think.
I have two questions, first, how does the human long non coding RNA (lnc-RNA) changes the gene expression epigenetic marks and how can it target a particular cell for delivery?
To being with, lizard has the power to regenerate limbs, the lizard macrophages turn the cells in the wounded area into blastemal cells then send in microRNA to pattern these blastemal cells into a new limb. This proves that microRNA is capable of causing a cell to specialize, or changes the gene expression of the cell. In the human it is terms lnc-RNA and it is a newly discovered method in modifying the epigenetic marks. I would like to know how the human lnc-RNA changes the gene expression with the epigenetic marks using its codes.
Edit: To see whether microRNA can produce the type of methyltransferase required we need to know where methytransferase is produced
I would also like to know how lnc-RNA could target a particular cell. Every cell has a different epigenetic mark due to its shape and specialization. It would be cool to know how the lnc-RNA could target a particular cell based on the cell's epigenetic marks. This is speculation on my part.
Edit: There are attempts in finding the microRNA target prediction, but it is not 100% accurate
There might not be an immediate answer for the two questions, but hopefully we can theorize a method or discover new answers as time goes on.