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KEGG PATHWAY Database
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KEGG PATHWAY Database

Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions, and relations

KEGG2 PATHWAY BRITE DISEASE DRUG KO GENES GENOME LIGAND DBGET
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Pathway Maps

KEGG PATHWAY is a collection of manually drawn pathway maps (see new maps, change history, and last updates) representing our knowledge on the molecular interaction and reaction networks for:
1. Metabolism Subcategories changed!
    Carbohydrate   Energy   Lipid   Nucleotide   Amino acid   Other amino acid   Glycan
    Cofactor/vitamin   PK/Terpenoid   Other secondary metabolite   Xenobiotics   Overview
2. Genetic Information Processing
3. Environmental Information Processing
4. Cellular Processes
5. Organismal Systems
6. Human Diseases
and also on the structure relationships (KEGG drug structure maps) in:
7. Drug Development
KEGG Atlas may now be used to examine any of the KEGG pathway maps.

Pathway Entries and Pathway Modules

Pathway entries are text representation of pathway maps, containing descriptions (for a limited number of entries, at the moment). Pathway modules are specification of subnetworks that correspond to tighter functional units, each represented as a list of KO identifiers (K numbers).

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Pathway Mapping

KEGG PATHWAY mapping is the process to map molecular datasets, especially large-scale datasets in genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, to the KEGG pathway maps for biological interpretaion of higher-level systemic functions.

1. Metabolism

1.1 Carbohydrate Metabolism
Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis
Citrate cycle (TCA cycle)
Pentose phosphate pathway
Pentose and glucuronate interconversions
Fructose and mannose metabolism
Galactose metabolism
Ascorbate and aldarate metabolism
Starch and sucrose metabolism
Amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism
Pyruvate metabolism
Glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism
Propanoate metabolism
Butanoate metabolism
C5-Branched dibasic acid metabolism
Inositol phosphate metabolism
global map
Global metabolism map


Enzymes
Compounds with biological roles
1.2 Energy Metabolism
Oxidative phosphorylation
Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis - antenna proteins
Carbon fixation in photosynthetic organisms
Reductive carboxylate cycle in photosynthetic bacteria
Methane metabolism
Nitrogen metabolism
Sulfur metabolism

Photosynthesis proteins
1.3 Lipid Metabolism
Fatty acid biosynthesis
Fatty acid elongation in mitochondria
Fatty acid metabolism
Synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies
Steroid biosynthesis
Primary bile acid biosynthesis
Secondary bile acid biosynthesis
Steroid hormone biosynthesis
Glycerolipid metabolism
Glycerophospholipid metabolism
Ether lipid metabolism
Sphingolipid metabolism
Arachidonic acid metabolism
Linoleic acid metabolism
alpha-Linolenic acid metabolism
Biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids
Lipids
Lipid biosynthesis proteins
1.4 Nucleotide Metabolism
Purine metabolism
Pyrimidine metabolism
1.5 Amino Acid Metabolism
Alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism
Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism
Cysteine and methionine metabolism
Valine, leucine and isoleucine degradation
Valine, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis
Lysine biosynthesis
Lysine degradation
Arginine and proline metabolism
Histidine metabolism
Tyrosine metabolism
Phenylalanine metabolism
Tryptophan metabolism
Phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis
1.6 Metabolism of Other Amino Acids
beta-Alanine metabolism
Taurine and hypotaurine metabolism
Phosphonate and phosphinate metabolism
Selenoamino acid metabolism
Cyanoamino acid metabolism
D-Glutamine and D-glutamate metabolism
D-Arginine and D-ornithine metabolism
D-Alanine metabolism
Glutathione metabolism
1.7 Glycan Biosynthesis and Metabolism
N-Glycan biosynthesis
High-mannose type N-glycan biosynthesis
O-Glycan biosynthesis
O-Mannosyl glycan biosynthesis
Glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis - chondroitin sulfate
Glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis - heparan sulfate
Glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis - keratan sulfate
Glycosaminoglycan degradation
Glycosylphosphatidylinositol(GPI)-anchor biosynthesis
Glycosphingolipid biosynthesis - lacto and neolacto series
Glycosphingolipid biosynthesis - globo series
Glycosphingolipid biosynthesis - ganglio series
Lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis
Peptidoglycan biosynthesis
Other glycan degradation
KEGG GLYCAN

Composite structure map
Monosaccharide codes

Glycosyltransferases
Proteoglycans
LPS biosynthesis proteins
1.8 Metabolism of Cofactors and Vitamins
Thiamine metabolism
Riboflavin metabolism
Vitamin B6 metabolism
Nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism
Pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis
Biotin metabolism
Lipoic acid metabolism
Folate biosynthesis
One carbon pool by folate
Retinol metabolism
Porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism
Ubiquinone and other terpenoid-quinone biosynthesis
1.9 Biosynthesis of Polyketides and Terpenoids
Type I polyketide structures
Biosynthesis of 12-, 14- and 16-membered macrolides
Biosynthesis of ansamycins
Biosynthesis of type II polyketide backbone
Biosynthesis of type II polyketide products
Tetracycline biosynthesis
Polyketide sugar unit biosynthesis
Nonribosomal peptide structures
Biosynthesis of siderophore group nonribosomal peptides
Biosynthesis of vancomycin group antibiotics
Terpenoid backbone biosynthesis
Diterpenoid biosynthesis
Monoterpenoid biosynthesis
Limonene and pinene degradation
Zeatin biosynthesis
Sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis
Carotenoid biosynthesis
1.10 Biosynthesis of Other Secondary Metabolites
Brassinosteroid biosynthesis
Phenylpropanoid biosynthesis
Stilbenoid, diarylheptanoid and gingerol biosynthesis
Flavonoid biosynthesis
Flavone and flavonol biosynthesis
Anthocyanin biosynthesis
Isoflavonoid biosynthesis
Indole alkaloid biosynthesis
Isoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis
Tropane, piperidine and pyridine alkaloid biosynthesis
Acridone alkaloid biosynthesis
Caffeine metabolism
Betalain biosynthesis
Glucosinolate biosynthesis
Benzoxazinoid biosynthesis
Penicillin and cephalosporin biosynthesis
beta-Lactam resistance
Streptomycin biosynthesis
Clavulanic acid biosynthesis
Puromycin biosynthesis
Novobiocin biosynthesis
Insect hormone biosynthesis
KEGG PLANT

Phytochemical compounds
1.11 Xenobiotics Biodegradation and Metabolism
Caprolactam degradation
Biphenyl degradation
Toluene and xylene degradation
gamma-Hexachlorocyclohexane degradation
3-Chloroacrylic acid degradation
1,1,1-Trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) degradation
2,4-Dichlorobenzoate degradation
1,2-Dichloroethane degradation
Tetrachloroethene degradation
Styrene degradation
1,4-Dichlorobenzene degradation
Naphthalene and anthracene degradation
Ethylbenzene degradation
Fluorene degradation
Carbazole degradation
Benzoate degradation via CoA ligation
Benzoate degradation via hydroxylation
Atrazine degradation
Bisphenol A degradation
1- and 2-Methylnaphthalene degradation
Trinitrotoluene degradation
Geraniol degradation
Fluorobenzoate degradation
Metabolism of xenobiotics by cytochrome P450
Drug metabolism - cytochrome P450
Drug metabolism - other enzymes
1.12 Overview
Overview of biosynthetic pathways
Biosynthesis of plant secondary metabolites
Biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids
Biosynthesis of terpenoids and steroids
Biosynthesis of alkaloids derived from shikimate pathway
Biosynthesis of alkaloids derived from ornithine, lysine and nicotinic acid
Biosynthesis of alkaloids derived from histidine and purine
Biosynthesis of alkaloids derived from terpenoid and polyketide
Biosynthesis of plant hormones

2. Genetic Information Processing

2.1 Transcription
RNA polymerase
Basal transcription factors
Spliceosome
Transcription factors
2.2 Translation
Ribosome
Aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis
Ribosome
Translation factors
2.3 Folding, Sorting and Degradation
Protein export
SNARE interactions in vesicular transport
Ubiquitin mediated proteolysis
Proteasome
RNA degradation
Chaperones and folding catalysts
SNAREs
Ubiquitin system
2.4 Replication and Repair
DNA replication
Base excision repair
Nucleotide excision repair
Mismatch repair
Homologous recombination
Non-homologous end-joining
DNA replication proteins
Chromosome
DNA repair and recombination proteins

3. Environmental Information Processing

3.1 Membrane Transport
ABC transporters
Phosphotransferase system (PTS)
Bacterial secretion system
Transporters

Secretion system
3.2 Signal Transduction
Two-component system
MAPK signaling pathway
MAPK signaling pathway - fly
MAPK signaling pathway - yeast
ErbB signaling pathway
Wnt signaling pathway
Notch signaling pathway
Hedgehog signaling pathway
TGF-beta signaling pathway
VEGF signaling pathway
Jak-STAT signaling pathway
Calcium signaling pathway
Phosphatidylinositol signaling system
mTOR signaling pathway
Two-component system
3.3 Signaling Molecules and Interaction
Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction
Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction
ECM-receptor interaction
Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs)
Receptors and channels
GTP-binding proteins
Cytokines
Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs)
CAM ligands
Cellular antigens
Glycan binding proteins
Bacterial toxins

4. Cellular Processes

4.1 Transport and Catabolism
Endocytosis
Lysosome
Peroxisome
Regulation of autophagy
4.2 Cell Motility
Bacterial chemotaxis
Flagellar assembly
Regulation of actin cytoskeleton
Bacterial motility proteins

Cytoskeleton proteins
4.3 Cell Growth and Death
Cell cycle
Cell cycle - yeast
Meiosis - yeast
Oocyte meiosis
Apoptosis
p53 signaling pathway
4.4 Cell Communication
Focal adhesion
Adherens junction
Tight junction
Gap junction

5. Organismal Systems

5.1 Immune System
Hematopoietic cell lineage
Complement and coagulation cascades
Toll-like receptor signaling pathway
NOD-like receptor signaling pathway
RIG-I-like receptor signaling pathway
Cytosolic DNA-sensing pathway
Natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity
Antigen processing and presentation
T cell receptor signaling pathway
B cell receptor signaling pathway
Fc epsilon RI signaling pathway
Fc gamma R-mediated phagocytosis
Leukocyte transendothelial migration
Intestinal immune network for IgA production
Chemokine signaling pathway
5.2 Endocrine System
Insulin signaling pathway
Adipocytokine signaling pathway
PPAR signaling pathway
GnRH signaling pathway
Progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation
Melanogenesis
Renin-angiotensin system
5.3 Circulatory System
Cardiac muscle contraction
Vascular smooth muscle contraction
5.4 Excretory System
Aldosterone-regulated sodium reabsorption
Vasopressin-regulated water reabsorption New!
Proximal tubule bicarbonate reclamation New!
5.5 Nervous System
Long-term potentiation
Long-term depression
Neurotrophin signaling pathway
5.6 Sensory System
Olfactory transduction
Taste transduction
5.7 Development
Dorso-ventral axis formation
Axon guidance
5.8 Environmental Adaptation
Circadian rhythm - mammal
Circadian rhythm - fly
Circadian rhythm - plant
Plant-pathogen interaction New!

6. Human Diseases

6.1 Cancers
Pathways in cancer (overview)
Colorectal cancer
Pancreatic cancer
Glioma
Thyroid cancer
Acute myeloid leukemia
Chronic myeloid leukemia
Basal cell carcinoma
Melanoma
Renal cell carcinoma
Bladder cancer
Prostate cancer
Endometrial cancer
Small cell lung cancer
Non-small cell lung cancer
KEGG DISEASE

Human diseases
ICD-10 disease classification
6.2 Immune System Diseases
Asthma
Systemic lupus erythematosus
Autoimmune thyroid disease
Allograft rejection
Graft-versus-host disease
Primary immunodeficiency
6.3 Neurodegenerative Diseases
Alzheimer's disease
Parkinson's disease
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
Huntington's disease
Prion diseases
6.4 Circulatory Diseases
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM)
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC)
Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM)
Viral myocarditis
6.5 Metabolic Diseases
Type I diabetes mellitus
Type II diabetes mellitus
Maturity onset diabetes of the young
6.6 Infectious Diseases
Vibrio cholerae infection
Vibrio cholerae pathogenic cycle
Epithelial cell signaling in Helicobacter pylori infection
Pathogenic Escherichia coli infection
Leishmania infection New!

7. Drug Development

7.1 Chronology: Antibiotics
Penicillins
Cephalosporins - parenteral agents
Cephalosporins - oral agents
Aminoglycosides
Tetracyclines
Macrolides and ketolides
Quinolones
Rifamycins
KEGG DRUG

Therapeutic category of drugs (Japan)
USP drug classification (USA)
ATC classification (WHO)
7.2 Chronology: Antineoplastics
Antineoplastics - alkylating agents
Antineoplastics - antimetabolic agents
Antineoplastics - agents from natural products
Antineoplastics - hormones
Antineoplastics - protein kinases inhibitors
7.3 Chronology: Nervous System Agents
Hypnotics
Anxiolytics
Anticonvulsants
Local analgesics
Opioid analgesics
Antipsychotics
Antipsychotics - phenothiazines
Antipsychotics - butyrophenones
Antidepressants
7.4 Chronology: Other Drugs
Sulfonamide derivatives - sulfa drugs
Sulfonamide derivatives - diuretics
Sulfonamide derivatives - hypoglycemic agents
Antiarrhythmic drugs
Antacids
Antivirals
Immunosuppressive agents
Osteoporosis drugs New!
7.5 Target Based Classification
Serotonin receptor agonists/antagonists
Dopamine receptor agonists/antagonists
Histamine receptor antagonists
beta-Adrenergic receptor agonists/antagonists
alpha-Adrenergic receptor agonists/antagonists
Calcium channel blocking agents
Catecholamine transferase inhibitors
Angiotensin antagonists
HIV protease inhibitors
Cyclooxygenase inhibitors
Cholinergic and anticolinergic drugs
Nicotinic cholinergic receptor antagonists
PPAR agonists
RAR and RXR agonists/antagonists
7.6 Structure Based Classification
Azoles
Quinolines
Statins
Eicosanoids