Silver Acetate Autometallography (AMG)
Responsible author: Univ.-Prof. Dr. Gerhard W. HACKER, Medical Research Coordination Center (MRCC) and Institute of Pathological Anatomy, Landeskliniken Salzburg (Salzburg Federal Hospital), Zentralbereich Medizin, and University of Salzburg, c/o Muellner Hauptstr. 48, A-5020 Salzburg, Austria, EU. Email-contact: email@example.com
In the early eighties, a series of papers were published by Gorm DANSCHER, Aarhus, Denmark, to introduce a reliable and easy-to-handle technique for light microscopical and ultrastructural autometallographic (AMG) studies. Specific methods were developed to demonstrate endogenous zinc pools in synaptic and secretory vesicles; exogeneous mercury, silver bound as sulfide or selenide crystals, in lysosomes; and tissue-bound gold ions resulting from medicamented aurothiocompounds. It was demonstrated that gold ions chemically bound in the lysosomes had to be reduced to metallic gold before they could be silver-amplified. This understanding made it feasible to apply AMG amplification for magnifying colloidal gold particles in thick, semithin and ultrathin sections. As a result, the highly sensitive in situ colloidal gold-labeled detection of peptides, proteins, and amines by immunohistochemistry (immunogold-silver staining (IGSS), carbohydrates by lectin histochemistry, and DNA and RNA by in situ hybridization, in situ PCR and in situ 3SR techniques were born.
Silver Acetate AMG was developed and optimized during research visits of Gerhard W. HACKER at the University of Uppsala, Sweden, in joint collaboration withGorm DANSCHER (Aarhus, DK) and Lars GRIMELIUS (Uppsala, S), from 1984 to 1988. Dr. Hacker would like to gratefully acknowledge the close friendship with these outstanding scientists. The technique published by us for the first time allowed silver enhancement of immunogold-silver staining under microscopical control and therefore can be used to yield optimal signal-to-noise ratio. Although the principle of silver acetate AMG is being used in a number of commercially available "light insensitive silver enhancement kits", it is more economical to perform it following our protocol.
Silver Acetate AMG can be applied for immunocytochemical gold-silver staining (immunogold-silver staining = IGSS; Nanogold-silver staining), as well as for lectin histochemistry, in situ hybridization, in situ PCR and the detection of metallic gold and silver, and sulfides and selenides of mercury, silver and zinc.
Hacker G.W., Grimelius L., Danscher G., Bernatzky G, Muss W., Adam H., Thurner J.: Silver acetate autometallography: an alternative enhancement technique for immunogold-silver staining (IGSS) and silver amplification of gold, silver, mercury and zinc in tissues. J. Histotechnol., 11: 213-221 (1988).
Hacker G.W., Danscher G.: Recent advances in immunogold-silver staining - autometallography. Cell Vision 1 (2), 102-109 (1994).
The following protocol outlines the application for gold label detection (colloidal gold, Nanogold):
Some related REFERENCES
last modified: 15.12.99 00:06:15
by: Univ.-Prof.Dr. Gerhard W. Hacker G.Hacker@lkasbg.gv.at
and Dr. Mag. Heidi Bartel H.Bartel@lkasbg.gv.at
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